logo are certification marks of the Project Management Institute, Inc. which are Fundamentals of project management / Joseph Heagney. same. According to the recent Project Management Institute (PMI®) This new edition of Fundamentals of Project Management includes time-. Fundamentals of Project Management. Peachtree St. Suite Atlanta GA [email protected] This course is a comprehensive introduction to.
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Fundamentals of project management / James P. Lewis.—3rd ed. p. cm. “PMP” and the PMP logo are certification marks of the Project Management Institute. Project Management Fundamentals. Page 2 gestheatagkiantes.ml ❑ PMI is an aggregation of best practices from thousands of professional project managers. PDF | On Jan 1, , R. Max Wideman and others published Fundamental Principles of Project Management.
The specific responsibilities consists of: i. Defining and maintaining project integrity ii. Selecting the project team iii. Identifying and managing stakeholders iv. Planning the project implementation v. Project organization vii. Project control and progress tracking viii. Financial management ix. Project Management in Nepal 3. The planned development in Nepal began with the implementation of the First Five Year plan in Linear Time-scaled for Planning.
Three of the more common types of bar charts are discussed in some detail below. Then as the job progresses. In above example. This progress need not be uniformly linear.
Figures giving the actual percentage cumulative progress are written on the opposite side of the bar.
Type II: Time-scaled for Planning. It is shaded to show the actual time worked on the activity up to the current date or to completion. Type III: It is important to recognize that the scale of progress generally changes during each basic time interval considered unless progress is indeed a direct linear function of time. The segments are shaded in proportion to the physical work actually performed during the basic time interval compared with the scale for the basic time interval in the range being shaded.
As CPM requires only one duration estimate. In PERT. It differs from PERT only in the duration estimating technique. In the s. In practice. A probability is attached to each estimate. CPM enables planners and managers to thoroughly analyze the timing and sequential logic of all operations required to complete a project.
Since the mechanics of the two approaches are so similar. US Government agencies insisted on their use by contractors on major government projects. Basic concepts of CPM such as activities. The most obvious difference between the two is that PERT recognizes uncertainty in activity duration by the use of optimistic. D0 is the most optimistic duration P0 is the probability of D0 Dp is the most pessimistic duration Pp is the probability of Dp Dc is the most likely duration Pc is the probability of Dc CPM is most often used in commercial projects.
Project characteristics that are essential for analysis by CPM are: Activity A precedes activities B and C. E cannot start until both B and C are finished. G must wait for F to finish. The nature of the relationships conveyed by the dummy activities is not readily clear. It is required to properly show the logic of an arrow network to provide unique labeling. B precedes D. D and E must finish before F can start. Each activity is represented by an arrow Example: In the above example.
For these and other reasons. Estimating Durations Once all activities in a project have been defined and organized into a logical CPM network. Forward Pass: The calculation procedure called the forward pass establishes the earliest start and finish times for each activity in the network.
The following nomenclature and relationship is used in the discussion of the backward pass: Late Start LS: It is the latest time the job can begin without pushing the finish date of the project further into the future. Late Finish EF: The late finish of a job is its late start time plus its duration. In general. Early Finish EF: The early finish of a job is its early start time plus the time needed to complete the job.
The following nomenclature and relationship is used in the discussion of the forward pass: Early Start ES: The early start of a job in a project is the earliest possible time that the job can begin. Backward Pass: The calculation procedure called the backward pass establishes the latest allowable start and finish times for each activity that will still permit the overall project to be completed without delaying beyond the scheduled completion date.
T for the project. The second main element is time. Free slack. In other words the longest path through the network is called the critical path. In the case where the target project completion time is set equal to the early project completion time. Critical Path A critical path is a continuous chain of activities from the beginning to the end of a network with the minimum float value. Total slack of a job activity is the difference between its late start and early start times or equivalently.
For calculation purpose. LF and earliest finish time of the project having the activities. D x Total Float The Total Float for an activity is the maximum amount of time that the activity can be delayed without extending the completion time of the overall project.
Total Float for Activity x. Total or Free. Class Note VI Free Float Free Float is the maximum amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of any of its followers.
Free Float for Activity x. Free float for any activity is always less than or equal to the total float. This causes the slope of the cumulative curve to start low. It was drawn for cumulative schedule of cost on vertical scale and time duration on horizontal scale.
Curve Cumulative Cost Time Traditionally. After the period of slow start. Cubic meter. Any of these can be expressed either in terms of actual units Rupees. By this. But now.
Also minor works are started which takes time to gain momentum. Contractor reduces his manpower substantially and activities are limited to finishing. After signing a construction contract. Why does it look Like S? On most projects. Progress can be measured in terms of money expended. In that case 6.
S-Curve graphically plots some measure of cumulative progress on the vertical axis against time on the horizontal axis. Figure 1 Figure 2 7. Summing all the daily excavation quantities through any particular day gives the cumulative quantity by that day. An airport construction project has to move The daily excavation quantities are as shown in figure 1 below. Curve can be seen by connecting the points at the end of each days cumulative production as shown in figure 2.
Class Note VI the vertical scale represents man. The horizontal axis plots time. To illustrate this. An example may be. The vertical axis typically plots cumulative progress or percentage completed for different systems of a project. As long as the slopes are either equal or decreasing as one moves to the right. They apply best to linear and repetitive operations such as tunnels. It is to be noted that linking bars are very complicated. It shows the links between an activity and the preceding or succeeding activities.
An example of linked bar chart is presented below. The extra time available for an activity for its completion is called float. Activity Duration Predecessors Followers A 4. The linked bar chart has advantage of exhibiting the effect of delay on succeeding activities and also it can provide some information of the extra time available if there is with an activity for its completion.
It was developed to overcome some of the inherent limitations of bar chart. A milestone chart shows relationship between the milestones within the same activity or job or task. As Henry Gantt invented it. Task J. Figure a shows a bar chart of a project. Each bar in a milestone chart again represents an activity or job or task and all the bars taken together represent the entire project.
Thus as compared to bar chart better control can be achieved with the help of a milestone chart. It may be seen that in a milestone chart the long time activities or jobs or tasks are identified in terms of specific events or milestones which are plotted against the time scaled indicating their accomplishments by specified times.
A milestone implies some specific stage or point where major activity either begins or ends. Task I.
It may be seen from fig. Combined activity bar charts can be converted to milestone bar charts by placing small triangles at strategic locations in the bars to indicate completion of certain milestones within each activity or group of activities as shown in figure below.
It can be used to show differences between actual progresses and planned. All this tells us is that expenditure is ahead of budget. This measures the difference between two factors by subtracting one from the other to give a positive or negative variance. There are actually three elements of data required to analyze performance.
It does not give us any of the following information: In the past the conventional method of control analysis was variance analysis. These elements are: Actual unit cost Although still used extensively today. It can be expressed as: SV is. CV is.
Stock ability 2. For each specified resource for each project time unit. For each resource. Resource Aggregation Resource aggregation is a method of calculating needed resources at the project or multi project level for each time unit to enable implementation of the plan.
Most CPM —oriented software on the market is capable of performing aggregation or finding daily time unit project requirements for all resources estimated as needed to implement the plan. Project resources all have certain characteristics that differentiate them in specific categories for further analysis. While allocating resources. It is usual in planning a project.
Having estimated the resources needed for the activities considered. A project CPM network using the arrow or precedence technique is developed. More than one resource needed is to be estimated. During this process. A bar chart in ascending order of early or late activity start is developed. Resource Allocation Resource allocation is the distribution of available resources to different activities on different dates and in different quantities is.
Resource Complexity. For each resource analyzed. Resource Aggregation Process The step-by-step procedure for obtaining resources histograms for a given project with or without computer usage are as listed below.
The first step of the process is to identify project required resources with limited availability and the periods of availability. A utilization factor of 1 for the project is considered best. The quality of allocation decision can be measured through a resource utilization factor.
Identification of what type of resources on what dates and on what quantity. For project managers. Resource allocation procedures or programs allocate available resources to project activities in an attempt to obtain the shortest project schedule completion date consistent with fixed resource limits. Resource leveling helps in obtaining uniformity so far as possible in resource requirement throughout the life of a project.
The most common priority criterion is the earliest start and minimum total float. By resource leveling. The additional cost directly associated with utilization of allocated resources fall in one of the following categories: A simple procedure is presented for understanding the allocation procedures that lead to a more realistic schedule.
A more complex procedure considers the possibility of interrupting an activity after its start and rescheduling the remaining position at a later date. Resource Leveling Resource Leveling is the method of scheduling activities within their available float so as to minimize fluctuations in day.
The benefit of resource leveling is to ease resource management so that cost involved in managing resources can be minimized. MR Gelal FPM Resource Allocation Process Many of the constraints hedging in a plan will have origins in the limitation of total resources or in the proportion of total resources that can be committed to a project.
Preparation of Resource Histogram of the resources required for each activity in a time series. Resource Leveling Process: He should have detailed compilation of resource requirements. The supply and availability of resources is seldom be taken for granted due to seasonal shortage.
If the resources requirement discloses that demand will exceed the supply. If there are conflicts among project activities for the same resource items. Limited Resource Scheduling The completion of a construction project at maximum efficiency of time and cost requires the judicious scheduling and allocation of available resources.
He must establish what resources will be needed. In modified schedule. See graph in next page 1. The resource limit has resulted in a delayed completion date. The project manager has to identify and schedule the future job needs so that the most efficient employment is made of the resources available. Men power. Consider the small project plotted as a schedule graph with a horizontal time scale.
Assume that there are only 10 men available on any day. If it appears that there will be adequate numbers of resources available to satisfy these projected requirements. The horizontal length of each activity arrow represents its duration and the number above the arrow represents its manpower resource requirement. See Example 2 in next page 2.
The scheduler may use activity slack as a means of smoothing peak resource requirements. Resource leveling program attempts to reduce peak resource requirements and smoothen out period-to-period assignments. This is especially true if one tries. The complexity of Project Scheduling with Limited Resources Problems of resource scheduling vary in kind and in severity. If project resource requirements can not be satisfied at the premium.
If the project requirements cannot be satisfied at the normal price level. The planner may choose this solution. Maintain the project completion date. The recommendation is to adopt the early start schedule and target the project early completion date. If the early schedule resource requirements can be satisfied using the resource Premium -price level if economical.
There is no alternative. The projects required resources can be satisfied at normal prices.
Cleland Monitoring means to keep track of and to check systematically all project activities. They are tools for effective project management. Evaluation is used to improve project implementation or to improve future project planning and decision-making.
It is usually an ongoing activity throughout the life of the project. Monitoring refers to timely gathering of information to review project implementation.
Evaluation is an objective and systematic process for determining relevance. Monitoring and Evaluation are related but distinct activities. It is management review of project implementation to ensure that project inputs. Class Notes 10 Project Monitoring and Control 1. Monthly and Trimester reports. It consists: Problems of project implementation are identified. Monitoring is a feedback mechanism. Some definitions: It is common to all sectors.
Evaluation can be on. It is done during the project implementation phase. They cannot be controlled by the project. Class Notes 10 3. The logical framework evaluates three sequential relationships: A logical framework matrix for each project is prepared for planning.
The assumptions and risks are evaluated as to their validity. Performance Benchmarks serve as the standards for monitoring and evaluation purposes. It evaluates cause and effect relationships and assumptions and risks of the project. Deviations are analyzed to take corrective actions. It ensures that operations are being conducted according to plans. Quality control from process to process. Controlling consists of actions and decisions managers undertake to ensure that actual results are consistent with desired results.
External factors beyond the control of the project. To be effective. Control is measuring. Control is a continuous process. Types of Control: Control measures actual performance and compares it with standards to identify deviations. Sources of information that provide the basis for monitoring and evaluation of the project.
It is initiated during the implementation of the activity. Deliverables of the project o Activities: Tasks that must be undertaken to accomplish outputs. Control is interrelated with planning. Control Feed-Forward Control: It is inputs. Concept of Control: It is initiated before the start of the activity. Specification for Quality Control. Acquisition of right human resources. It ensures that the right things are done in the right manner and at the right time.
Problems are corrected as they arise. It anticipates problems in advance and takes preventive corrective actions. Desired outcome of the project o Purpose: Effect or impact of the project. Targets in terms of quantity. It is transformation. Koontz and Weihrich Controlling is the measurement and correction of performance in order to make sure that enterprise objectives and the plans devised to attain them are accomplished.
Planning provides standards for control. Post Control Feedback Control: It is output-based. It is initiated after the completion of the activity. It is based on feedback of performance results. Financial analysis.
Figure below shows project monitoring and control cycle. Setting standards What should be done? Measuring Performance What actually was done? Prerequisites of Control system The prerequisites of control system are:. Control is not possible with out planning. Control is based on feedback of performance information. Control requires a structure with people and clearly defined authority-responsibility relationship to collect performance information and analyzing.
Should be flexible and capable of adjusting to environmental changes. Control should be based on participatory approach.
The reporting and feedback for control should have timeliness. Schedules are a graphical representation of time management on a project. Control of project progress is an on-going activity. Progress must be marked on the plan for every one to see; it should be reported from site and must be supplemented by the report on expediting procurement activities so that reliable updated reports can be prepared at regular intervals. During the process of implementing the plan according to the schedule, we may come across one or more of the following possibilities: If all activities are progressing according to the schedule, there is no need for updating the network but this is seldom the case.
Therefore, based on the progress of the work and the revised durations of unfinished activities due to delays, the schedule has to be redrawn. A thick line can be used above an activity line to show extent to which the activity has been completed. Since the bars are drawn to scale, the length can shoe the status of activities on a certain day. Notice in figure 1 above that activities , and are behind schedule. On the day of update, a vertical line is drawn through the bar chart to indicate how far the project should have progressed.
The use of such control information in a format that enables easy visualization of the activity status enables all members of the project team to predict future events more accurately, weather favorably or unfavorably. Although the duration of each activity can be compared with its planned duration, this does not give an accurate picture of actual performance. For a clear understanding of what a delay on an activity means to the complete project plan, it is necessary to perform an update.
In effect this involves entering the progress information into the network plan and analyzing the network with this added information. Updating is carried out to accommodate configuration changes, to assign a new target date instead of a previously planned target date, and to reflect remedial actions designed to correct deviations in order to predict their effect.
The updating cycle is as shown in figure 2 below. Steps in Updating Process: When the project is partially completed and is at an intermediate stage. Data Required for Updating The following information is necessary to update the plan at an intermediate stage of execution of a project: The process of replanning and rescheduling based on the results which serve as a guidance for decision by performing calculations made by taking into consideration the new knowledge and latest information at an intermediate stage of the project thus modifying the original network.
Process The CPM networks previously developed in planning can be used to aid planners and managers in decision making during controlling process. Is it Network Satisfactory? Updating Cycle 3. Update the network. The following conditions exist at the time of updating. Class Note 11 Illustrative Example: The network of a project shown below is to be updated at the end of 12 days.
It now requires 10 days in the place of 6 days originally planned. The critical path of the updated network has now changed.
Class Note 11 Solution: Figure above shows the original network. On the day of updating. Table below gives the details of execution of the various activities at the end of 12 days. This can be best achieved by taking TE for event 1 as equal to The critical path. The updated network can now be drawn on the basis of data of columns 1.
According to the updated network. For those activities. The updated network is shown in figure below. Also the earliest event time TE and latest occurrence time TL of each event is computed with reference to the original date of the project.
Class Note 11 Updated Network: An important question is which costs are controllable and by whom? Some costs are not directly controllable and yet a project manager must manage within a given environment. They are usually applied as a percentage of direct costs.
Indirect Cost Indirect costs include labor. Direct costs include the following: Project cost control systems should be designed to highlight potential problem areas. If you anticipate that some functions or contractors may have cost overruns.
Other possibilities include tracking cost by resource type. General overhead costs include: Field personnel can measure the costs incurred on a project best. General Overhead Cost These are home office costs that are charged to a project on a predetermined basis.
Direct Cost Direct costs are those that can be related to the production. All costs must be managed and most costs can be controlled.
There are three cost categories: The starting point for data collection is at the grass roots level through the use of time cards. Full use of man. It is of little value to know the man. It provides space for noting the budgeted and actual quantities of work done. Example of daily time sheet 2. Class Note 12 1. Report No: Job No: Page No: Occupatio Employee Activity Perf.
The man-hour distribution sheet is usually prepared by the foreman. The difference between the forecast to complete and the original estimate is computed and listed as the projected overrun and under run. Labor Cost On all projects it is necessary to obtain the number of hours spent on each part of the job by each employee. Such reports generally give a comparison of work item in terms of estimated hours for each activity with the actual hours to date and indicate any overrun or under run.
The quantity report. The forecast quantity is normally estimated. The activity code column on the daily time sheet. A labor report as shown in figure 3 enables management to keep track of man-hours worked. Total estimated and actual man. Daily time sheets and man-hour distribution records are totaled weekly. Steel work Welders Crane Oprt. Hour Summary Report 3. Figure 3: Example of worker.
Most chapters also include an exercise, and the answers are provided at the end of the book. These exercises required me to apply the principles of PM covered in the concerned chapters. This could be very helpful to the reader it was for me! The author understands that sending employees for PM training may be sometimes cost and time prohibitive for some organizations. He, therefore, suggests different ways to strongly advocate for PM training and education see Chapter Although somewhat outside of the scope of this book, the information may help the readers understand how to introduce and to make the PM principles work in their organizations.
Throughout the book, the author has presented interesting facts to elaborate his points e. Moreover, the book is written in a conversational style rather than as an information guide, which makes reading esoteric content easy.
The author's humorous streak throughout the book is icing on the cake! I would not be surprised if you get funny looks from others when you laugh out loud while reading some parts e. Well, that happened to me once. Overall, the information that this PM book has to offer outweighs its shortcomings, so go grab your copy!