Visiting Japanese Gardens This article is the first in a multi-part series by Koichi Kobayashi, a Seattle-based landscape architect and an affiliate professor of. The David G. Porter Memorial. Japanese Garden is described by its designer, Landscape Architect. Christopher Campbell, as "the Great within the Small". PDF | On Jan 1, , Wybe Kuitert and others published Gardens in Japan.
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Seisui-Tei, “Garden of Pure Water”, is a traditional Zen garden where the That is, the elements of the garden are meant to evoke one's creative process. Many Japanese garden students and enthusiasts from the United States seek create, maintain and even just appreciate traditional Japanese gardens takes a. GARDEN DESIGN. ABSTRACT. We present an investigation into the relation between design princi- ples in Japanese gardens, and their associated perceptual.
After an in-depth tour of the site, Mr. Sumi impressed me by both his generosity and his excellent workmanship. Until the project, gardeners from the Japanese Canadian Nikkei community had not actively supported renovations of Nitobe.
One concern was their reluctance to modify the original garden design. Even now, a major problem that overshadows the upkeep and repair of Japanese gardens outside of Japan is the similar lack of active support from Nikkei communities. The construction of both the Nitobe Memorial Garden and the Seattle Japanese Garden occurred around the same time allowing for collaboration between the two designers, Professor Mori and Juki Iida, and it is likely that this camaraderie enhanced the final products.
However, it feels far removed from the hustle-bustle of the city that surrounds it, and remains the quintessential Edo-period feudal-stroll garden. There were few others besides myself to witness the surreal early morning scene of a mist-covered landscape beneath the endless drizzle. The modern-day center of Japanese gardening is, of course, Kyoto.
However, during the Edo-period samurai estates and their adjoining gardens accounted for sixty-percent of the property within the city of Edo, or present day Tokyo. Construction on the garden started in and took eight years to complete.
Fires repeatedly destroyed the large feudal estates and gardens of Edo; nevertheless, they continued to be a necessary part of the behind-the-scenes venue for feudal social life. Feudal lords hosted parties, tea ceremonies, archery events, and equine sports in their gardens just as sporting events are held today.
Throughout history, the compositions of gardens in Japan have often been based on motifs from Eastern religions such as the mythological holy mountains of Horai-Shinsen and Shumi-Sen from Buddhism and Taoism.
The feudal garden was no exception, though a separate design concept evolved to tastefully combine many different and sometimes contrasting scenes within its expanse. One method used by designers was to physically reproduce famous Japanese landmarks and scenes from literature in their gardens. The use of light and dark rock in Rikugi-en is an example.
When the garden was constructed a large pond was dug in the middle of site. Two teahouses in Rikugi-en, Shinsen-tei and Shinshun-tei, are currently used for tea ceremony, which I had a chance to witness during my last visit. In the later part of the 19th century the garden came into the hands of a wealthy merchant by the name of Yataro Iwasaki.
Kiyoshi Inoshita, the designer of the Seattle Japanese Garden along with Juki Iida, directed maintenance of Rikugi-en for the Tokyo Parks Department from after it was opened to the public. Before that, he worked to preserve the former stroll garden of the Matsumae clan in Tokyo, which was similar to but less magnificent than Rikugi-en.
Unfortunately, the Matsumae garden no longer exists today but there is little doubt that along with Rikugi-en, it also was one of the original design concepts for the Seattle Japanese Garden. It is spread out over 17 acres and includes an expansive Japanese stroll garden and a relaxing museum that beautifully combines the indoor and outdoor spaces of the building and the garden. About years ago, a group of 20 Japanese artists seek- ing a new life in South Florida formed an agricultural commune called the Yamato Colony.
Morikami, the last remaining member of the colony, was able to maintain his acre property despite the harsh environment and weather. In , the current museum was completed and includes exhibits on the Yamato Colony, Japanese arts and crafts, and items unique to Japanese lifestyle and culture. In addition to the permanent displays at the museum, visitors can experience Japanese culture through seasonal hands on activities. The Morikami Museum is possibly the largest museum outside of Japan with an exclusive Japanese theme.
The garden at Morikami Garden combines various sub-gardens of different styles into a large stroll around a central and expansive pond. They include a Shinden expansive aristocratic estates of the Heian-period built over ponds and islands garden, a Jodo Buddhist representation of Pure Land, paradise garden, a dry-rock sekitei garden, a flat hira- niwa garden, and a modern-natural garden.
By utilizing a distinct South Florida expression, the garden is able to incorporate all of these various classical styles without simply copying components from historic gardens in Japan. However, the garden designers are careful to use native-tropical plants in a way to convey the sense of being in a Japanese garden.
Kurisu for the project. The displays at the Morikami Museum along with the pine and bam- boo forests, and the lake and waterfall of its stroll garden reflect the endurance of the Japanese-immigrant community in Florida over the past century. At the main entrance of the garden is a wooden torii gate constructed using the tongue and groove method without nails.
Following a layout common in many stroll-gardens, the path forks just after entering the gate, starting a loop that winds throughout Osaka Garden. The path is connected to the small nakashima center-island by a series of stepping-stones across the pond. A crescent-shaped moon bridge connects the nakashima to a small peninsula that partially encloses the rest of the pond from the lagoon.
The peninsula is near a kameshima turtle-island , and is also a good place to stop and take in the view of a large, cascading waterfall on the island side of the pond.
The view from the inside path near the waterfall looks out over the pond to the moon bridge, continuing on across the lagoon to the Museum in the distance. Many Japanese gardens built in North America started with local grassroots interest and then became realities through cooperation with governmental authorities and organizations in Japan.
For example, the creation of the Seattle Japanese Garden was facilitated by the goodwill of the Government of Japan and the City of Tokyo, which helped to recruit designers for the project. The construction of the Osaka Garden was made possible through similar cooperation with Japan and the City of Osaka.
The pavilion was very popular and even influenced the later works of Chicago landscape architect John Robinson, and the prairie-style of Frank Lloyd Wright, which was used for a number of the hotels he designed in Japan. The Phoenix Pavilion underwent restoration and a formal Japanese stroll garden was added to the site to prepare for the World Industrial Exposition in Paintings from that time show construction of the present peninsula, nakashima, moon bridge, waterfall, and a path leading from the pavilion to the pond.
Formal tea ceremony groups used the teahouse until when the Phoenix Pavilion along with the rest of the garden was destroyed by fire.
Today, only a Kasuga-style stone lantern remains in its original place from pre-fire construction. Between and , the parks department of Chicago made large-scale repairs on the garden, which included expanding the pond, cleaning the waterfall, and building a new Moon Bridge. A gazebo with a traditional Japanese Irimoya-style, gabled and hipped, roof was built at the site of the former teahouse, which was not restored because the wreckage was deemed too unsafe.
Kaneji Domoto, a garden designer from Japan, also did the new rockwork for the waterfall under the supervision of the parks department.
To commemorate the 20th anniversary of the Chicago-Osaka sister city relationship in , Chicago renamed the garden to Osaka Japanese Garden. At that time, my company, Kobayashi and Associates, was hired to guide the addition of a new torii gate and fencing to the northeast entrance, replacement of existing trees, and maintenance to the garden paths.
In , the garden underwent its most recent renovation lead by Sadafumi Uchiyama, a Japanese garden expert and designer from Oregon that focused on renovations to the pond shore and the long awaited expansion and repair of the waterfall. Ever since the establishment of the villa, its residents have long cherished the views of the Kyoto basin and the distant mountains, including the famous the peaks of Mt.
Hiei to the east, and Mt. Atago to the west. Toshito subsequently passed the estate on to his son, Prince Tomotada. Prince Toshihitos fondness for classical literature, the visual arts, tea ceremony, architecture, and garden design influenced the design and composition of the villa. For example, there are landforms within the garden that portray scenes from the Japanese literary classic Tale of the Genji.
Around Konchi-in Suden, the chief priest of the head temple of the Rinzai-sect of Zen Buddhism, Nanzen-ji, described his visit to Katsura Imperial Villa in a writing entitled Katsura-teiki. He was likely at the Shoka-tei gazebo on the highest point of the garden when he made this observation.
Starting around , the Edo-Shogun government took charge of large-scale maintenance, repair, and renovation of the estate. The main goal in a Japanese garden is to model nature in a limited and controlled manner.
Trademarks of this at Katsura include using straight-cut granite slabs as bridges between islands, boat-launches, and embankments. Similar elements have been widely duplicated in many other gardens in Japan and the world, including the Seattle Japanese Garden.
A dense forest presently surrounds the villa, which partly obstructs outside views. The forest probably did not exist at the time of the original construction and might have been planted after Kyoto was hit by a large typhoon in While I was a student at Kyoto University, I spent many weeks at the villa studying the forest as part of an effort to develop a maintenance program to prevent overgrowth.
Only a group of 15 visitors is allowed in each hour and spaces fill up fast on any given day. Even if a reservation can be made the visitor is limited to that hour to enjoy the grounds while being escorted at all times by security guards and official guides.
Despite the restrictions, the beauty of the villa is worth the trouble and is almost too much for one person to take in. Since construction finished in , the garden has inspired academic research among Japanese garden scholars, and could probably earn a place on the National Historic Registry today.
The following series of articles will look at the origins of the Seattle Japanese Garden and the motifs that were adapted from important gardens in Japan. The series will end with a discussion about the future direction of the Seattle Japanese Garden, and highlight other influential Japanese-style gardens in North America and the world The Seattle Japanese garden is three-and-a-half acres with the basic framework of a formal shin-style stroll-garden of the type built during the Momoyama late 16th century and early Edo early 17th century Periods in Japan.
The aim of this style is to create the illusion of several landscapes within a single garden space that appear and disappear along the path. The flow of water, which originates at the high mountain ranges, transforms itself as it continues its way through the landscape; first it turns into a waterfall, then into a stream, washing the bank by a teahouse, and finally becomes a lake.
The water then reaches a village, symbolically represented by cherry tree grove, iris paddies, and a moon-viewing platform. At the end of the lake is a stone paved boat launch, which represents a fishing village.
There, the water disappears from sight, leaving the expectation that it will be joining the greater ocean. The southern end of the garden is an open woodland and mixed forest planted with a variety of trees and shrubs used in traditional Japanesegardens such as pines, maples, gingko, and bamboo.
The designers also utilized native Northwest plants including cedars, firs, rhododendrons, and azaleas. Heading north, the woodlands morph into mountains and a stream originates from a series of waterfalls on the hillside. A Korean-style pagoda sits on the western hilltop, and a tea garden appears after traversing the mountain path. The stream continues beyond the hills feeding a lake lined with shore pines, willows, birches, and deciduous shrubs. Koi, colorful Japanese carp, thrive in the lake, along with amphibians, and a great blue heron.
Jutting out into the lake from the southwest shore is a pebble promontory, topped with a stone lantern. An island is in the middle of the lake planted with pines and con- nected to the lakeshore by two wooden bridges. To the north, the fishing village and boat lunch are more geometric in contrast to the woodland and mountainous areas. The island, bridges, and the features of the shore together symbolize the scene of Amano- Hashidate, a famous area along the Sea of Japan comprised of a sandpit resembling a bridgeover the sky.
The view south from the boat launch produces the island and the distant mountains beyond the teahouse, and to the west is the cherry tree orchard covering a grassy hill. Species of maple, pine, bamboo, cherry and plum trees, along with moss ground covers, irises and water lilies predominate in the lake area. Kasuga-style lanterns mark divergences in the path; these types of lanterns often mark the entrances of many important Shinto shrines. The initial movement to create a Japanese garden in Seattle began in , when the Alaska Yukon Exhibition was held.
A Japanese Pavilion with an accompanying garden was built for the fair, which ignited regional interest and excitement about Japanese gardens. In , the Olmstead brothers designed the University of Washington Arboretum, and by , officials agreed that the Arboretum was a good environment for a Japanese garden.
The Arboretum Founda- tion began raising funds for the creation of the garden, and in through the assistance of the Japanese Consulate General in Seattle, the Foundation was able to enlist the help of Tatsuo Moriwaki of Tokyo Metro Parks to help guide the process.
Moriwaki selected Kiyoshi Inoshita and Juki Iida from Tokyo to design and lead the construction of the project. In historical documents written by Mr. Learning to plan and design using plants that are adapted to the local climate can help reduce the amount of water needed to keep them alive and thriving.
Plant choices may become limited but do not be Through smart planning, plants that require more water can be implemented into the design. Ground water recharge is another component to take into consideration.
Large areas of paving and other impermeable surfaces prevent rain and other runoff water to be absorbed by the ground. Instead, this water is usually directed to storm drains and other collection devices and does not have the chance to permeate into the ground. This causes problems when areas use ground water for irrigation. The groundwater is not recharged at a sufficient rate and may lead to a depression in the water table.
Using permeable and semi-permeable materials or simply reducing the amount of impermeable surfaces when designing are easy ways to prevent excess runoff and allow improved groundwater recharge. Rain gardens are one particular style of design which utilizes precipitation as a means of irrigating plants.
These gardens rely on drainage systems which direct rainfall into the garden instead of to curbs and storm drains.
Finding ways to integrate greywater into your irrigation system is another way to make the garden more sustainable. The typical household produces 80 gallons of greywater each day Windust, The use of greywater is a great way to recycle everyday domestic water use and redirect it into the garden.
Hydrozoning is another landscape practice that makes a garden more sustainable. Grouping plants with similar water needs is more efficient. It is also practical 12 in the sense that dissimilar water needs can kill plants in the same area due to either too much or too little water.
Picking the right kinds of plants can save you time and money when it comes to their care. With xeriscaping, plants will need to be either native or adapted to the area in which you live.
If you are considering creating a rain garden, it is best to use native plants that are adapted to your areas rainfall. These plants also create natural habitats for animals and insects in the region as well. Greywater use can affect the types of plants one uses in terms of irrigating.
Plants that get watered by this will need to tolerate alkaline conditions Windust, The annual rainfall, temperature, soil type are all major factors in deciding the types of plants you can consider using in your design.
Plants that have evolved in your particular climate may survive merely from the conditions on your site. Finding local goods and stores reduces the need to rely on faraway services that require lengthy and expensive transport.
Using renewable and sustainable products is another great way to reduce the environmental impact of design. If one is replacing or augmenting an existing garden, recycling and repurposing materials from the previous garden are easy and often free ways to create design elements in the new garden. Planting deciduous trees on the south side of buildings is one smart choice.
During the winter, the trees are bare and allow sunlight to heat the home, thus reducing the need for heating. When it is summer, the full canopy of the tree shades the home and reduces the need for air conditioning, saving energy and money. If lighting is added to the garden, try using LED lights. These require very low amounts of energy when compared to conventional incandescent fixtures. Fertilizers may help to perk-up plants, but the excess that is not absorbed gets washed off site.
When these growth chemicals enter bodies of water, eutrophication may occur. As this happens, water quality becomes poor and can kill fish and other aquatic organisms.
Limiting or not using fertilizers help prevent this from happening. Pesticides are helpful in the sense that they kill harmful insects but they can kill the beneficial ones as well. Also, with time, insects develop immunities to these chemicals and more poisonous concoctions must be made to keep up.
Instead of relying on chemicals, biological controls such as ladybirds can help defend your garden without the need for pesticides. Just like pesticides, herbicides can create weeds that become chemical resistant. Drip irrigation can help reduce the amount of weeds by limiting areas that receive water. Pulling them out by hand is labor intensive, but it is something anyone can do without relying on harsh chemicals or drip irrigation systems. Chapter 3: The Sustainable Japanese Garden One should never imitate that which has been inherited from ones forebears; one should, instead, strive after that for which ones forebears strove.
With that in mind, I will not be going into the basics of creating such a garden. If you would like to learn more about general Japanese garden design, I suggest the following material to gain a solid foundation. You can then apply the tips below to your own sustainable garden. This book is the oldest known Japanese garden manual and was written during the 11 th century.
It contains a wealth of information on the dos and donts of the time period.
Creating Japanese Gardens This manual offers technical information on design. It covers the major styles of gardens, practical design guidance, plant lists, and great illustrations of American-built residential gardens. A Japanese Touch for Your Garden This book goes into more detail of elements that make up the garden.
Different styles of walkways, lanterns, and fences are just some of the aspects of Japanese garden design that are covered. As history has shown, the Japanese garden is highly adaptive to novel and contemporary ideas. Overlap of sustainable practices already exists within the traditional styles.
Now it is only a matter of taking this concept a step further. The following discusses how sustainability and Japanese gardens can work in harmony. Creating a sustainable Japanese garden seems the next logical step in the evolution of this particular design style. The Japanese garden began as a place to revere nature and in todays terms, working with our environment can take on old and new meanings. Using plants that are adapted to survive in a Mediterranean climate is one way in which to pay respect to the place we live.
These plants are adapted to the Mediterranean climate found in the Northern California region. Most have been traditionally used in Japanese gardens or are natives found in Japan. A few are additions that can serve as nice complements.
Scientific name Aloe vera Artemisia schmidtiana Aucuba japonica Bignonia sp. Bletilla striata Buxus microphylla var. This allows the introduction of plants into the garden that are not as well adapted to survive in the dry Mediterranean climate.
It is just like the way a musical scores efficient to draw, install and maintain. Therefore, alone cannot reproduce a great piece of music. American consumers tend to assume that some unskilled Therefore, artisans often tell their apprentice just to workers are doing the job.
You will see that the worker who went through an intensive vocational job is far more labor intensive than you have ever training typically over ten years, ten hours a day, six imagined.
For example, the boulders you see in a days a week. They are scientifically knowledgeable garden is hiding nearly two thirds of it underground, and often educated with traditional arts such as the and each one can weigh several tons easily. Even one Way of Tea and flower arrangement. The work still has to be experienced less than ten years.
They start with done by human power because the site is usually too simple or labor-intensive tasks while watching their small and delicate to use cattle or a motored vehicle.
It even takes years to learn how to fun because the ground is often too irregular to set up clean a garden properly because the site and materials a stepladder. Above all, you will have to make are so delicate and complex. They somehow communicated the design concept to the garden artisans, and the artisans selected the appropriate materials, brought them in and determined construction details on the spot.
These garden artisans often came from lower social rankings, even from the lowest discriminated classes, and made their way up solely with their talent.
Some garden artisans were highly educated as their employers, and they often Left Fig. Education and Training 8. Many young Mr. Touemon Sano the sixteenth, known as Ueto, have people choose modernized college education over started his answer by saying that Japanese and time-consuming, demanding and little or non-paid westerners are fundamentally different because the apprenticeship.
Most Japanese landscape architecture former live in a rice-making cycle spring to fall and schools, however, teach more Americanized modern the latter live in a wheat-making cycle fall to spring.
This also gardens overseas and have accepted many interns happens because of the difficulty of teaching this from western countries, his words really conveyed the complex subject. He also spent quite surveyed on how landscape architecture programs in a long time explaining the local climate of Kyoto, Japanese higher institutions offer hands-on training on which told us the importance of knowing it.
His research showed that most four-year During the interpreted lecture, Mr. Sano kept on colleges offer no or very little practical training. One giving objections to my English translation saying that of the reasons the schools stated was the difficulty to the nuance became slightly different.
He also obtain similar plant materials for all students to mentioned how Chinese characters and old phrases practice in a fair condition4.
The biggest study Japanese gardens seriously should learn the problem I think is that there are few professors who Japanese language first. It would be the minimum can really teach such subject or even actually do the manner required knowing the conversational level job themselves. The career path to be an academic and Japanese, if you ask an internship or an employment.
The industrial-academic hours, he covered all the important backgrounds but collaboration is urgent here. Higher institutions should also 9. A good design cannot be produced without it is not impossible even if you came from outside. It any musical instrument. We need both wings of the only requires patience to take the long and slow steps knowledge and the practical experience.
You may even have to listen to people whom you think are wrong at first, because many things can be understood only after certain experience. Tadahiko Higuchi, Dr.